Types of Editing

  • Proofreading
    • A fresh, final pair of eyes on the text.
    • Check for errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and syntax.
    • Look for inconsistencies that may have escaped the copy editor.
  • Copy editing
    • A more intensive edit.
    • Check for or impose a consistent style or format.
    • Check for errors in overall clarity and sense.
    • Fact-checking, where able and necessary.
    • Raise questions about apparent inconsistencies.
    • Note where permissions will be needed to publish copyrighted material.
    • Cross-check references, art, tables, figures, and other features against mentions in the text.
  • Substantive editing (line editing)
    • The fullest edit.
    • Solve structural problems and problems of overall clarity or accuracy.
    • Improve readability
      • Propose revisions to the text (including additional writing) as needed.
      • Propose reordering sections as needed.
    • Discuss queries and suggestions with author.
    • Incorporate responses into draft and return to author.


I charge by the hour. The rate depends on the level of editing required as well as considerations such as the technical nature of the document (a complex subject that requires research on my end will be more costly) and the turnaround time.

Before I can provide you an estimate, I would need to review an example of the material (a sample chapter, say, or a book proposal). From that, I can assess what the project demands (in other words, its scope) and how I can help. 

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